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About 1 of each 8 people in the United States immigrated from somewhere else.
Many people had to emigrate during the Nazi period
The story takes place during medieval times.
She challenges accepted doctrine.
The recession in Asia was contemporaneous with that in the United States.
Renaissancethe period of European history known for a revival of intellectual and artistic achievement (14th through mid-17th centuries)
other common meaning(s) — (with an uppercase "R")
We’re visiting the museum to see the exhibit of Renaissance art.
She majored in anthropology and just finished a report for the State Department that describes tribal customs in eastern Africa.
communisman economic system that abolishes private ownership of property with the goal of a classless society
A challenge with communism is that it is harder to know how to allocate capital when prices are subjective rather than the product of individual valuations.
China recently emerged as a world power.
The defending World Champions dominated their unranked opponent.
discriminateto treat people of different groups differently — especially unfair treatment due to race, religion or gender
other common meaning(s) — as in: suffered discrimination
We do not discriminate based on race, nationality, social status, age, gender, religion, or sexual preference.
other common meaning(s) — as in: Narrative of the Life of...
He titled his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.
Soviet Uniona former communist country that fought the cold war with the United States and which consisted of Russia and 14 other soviet socialist republics; established 1922 and officially dissolved 31 December 1991
Over half of the citizens of the Soviet Union were Russian.
manifestobvious; or to make obvious; or to show or demonstrate
other common meaning(s) — as in: manifest destiny
Domestic violence doesn’t always manifest as physical abuse.
reignrule (like that of a king or queen); or the time during which one ruled
other common meaning(s) — as in: She reigned over England
The arranged marriage solidified the alliance between two of Europe’s most important reigning families.
Her guess was proven right by subsequent developments.
Islamthe monotheistic religious system of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran; the world’s second most practiced religion
Islam is predominant in northern Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan, and Indonesia.
The world wide web is making genealogy easier than ever.
She was an emancipated 20th century woman pursuing her career.
premiertitle for the head of a government body in some countries
other common meaning(s) — as in: premier of Ontario
In 2013 he became the Premier of the State Council of China.
Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries was the largest legally enforced transfer of property in English history since the Norman Conquest.
...government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.
Abraham Lincoln -- Gettysburg Address
Marxismbelief in the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be replaced by communism
As a child, he adopted a Castro-inspired Marxism.
She works to liberate the religious minority from persecution.
frontieran international boundary or a wilderness at the edge of a settled area
other common meaning(s) — as in: the frontier of Tibet
Indian soldiers and technicians assisted in staffing some of the checkposts on the frontier with Tibet.
Palestinea geographic region on the Eastern Coast of the Mediterranean in the Middle East, at various times comprising parts of modern Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, Jordan, and Egypt
The boundaries of Palestine have changed through history.
flourishto thrive (grow or develop well)
other common meaning(s) — as in: the business is flourishing
The children are flourishing.
Nazia member of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party — typically in reference to the fanatical party during Adolph Hitler’s reign who thought they were superior to all others
or more rarely:
derogatory term for a person who is fanatical in their belief of superiority and their determination to control others
There are still racists who call themselves Nazis today.
Does our DNA compel us to act as we do?
HitlerGerman Nazi dictator during World War II; murdered millions of Jews and others who were not of the Aryan race (1889-1945) — as in: Adolf Hitler
Hitler killed disabled children as his first action of "racial hygiene." He pretended to end the program when the public protested.
peasantused historically or possibly in relation to a very poor country: a person of low income, education, and social standing — especially one who raises crops or livestock
Most people in the Middle Ages were peasants.
She is involved in clandestine intelligence operations.
other common meaning(s) — as in: She contended for the gold medal
Militant groups are contending for control of the country
Carthagean ancient city state on the north African coast near modern Tunis; founded by Phoenicians; destroyed and rebuilt by Romans; razed by Arabs in 698
Carthage is being resettled today as a suburb of Tunis.
Vikingsany of the Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries
Viking raids were not just on the coasts, but also up the rivers.
Jerusalemcapital and largest city of the modern state of Israel; a holy city for Jews, Christians and Muslims
Palestinians demanded that Israel halt construction in East Jerusalem.
oppressto dominate harshly and unfairly (as in "oppressive government")
to deny equal rights to others or make them suffer (as in "The government oppresses minorities.")
other common meaning(s) — as in: oppressive government
The regime oppresses its people.
Mayan Civilizationan American Indian civilization of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala that reached its peak between AD 300 and 900; characterized by outstanding architecture, pottery, and astronomy
Post-Columbian Mayans almost totally adopted Roman Catholicism.
Queen Elizabethqueen of England and Ireland from 1558 to 1603; daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; succeeded Mary I (who was a Catholic) and restored Protestantism to England; during her reign Mary Queen of Scots was executed and the Spanish Armada was defeated (1533-1603) — of England
The Elizabethan era is in reference to the 45 years that Queen Elizabeth ruled.
Theodore Roosevelt26th President of the United States; broke anti-competitive U.S. cartels, hero of the Spanish-American War; and champion of the building of the Panama Canal (1858-1919)
Theodore Roosevelt is remembered for saying: "Speak softly but carry a big stick."
Constantinoplethe city of Byzantium was renamed to Constantinople which was renamed to Istanbul, Turkey; Constantine made it the capital of the Byzantium Empire (also known as the eastern Roman Empire) in the fourth century
Turkey renamed Constantinople to Istanbul in 1930.
Crusadesany of the more or less continuous military expeditions in the 11th to 13th centuries when Christian powers of Europe invaded Muslims in the Holy Land in the Middle East
other common meaning(s) — as in: First Crusade to Jerusalem
Resentments date back to the Crusades.
Florencecity in central Italy that was the center of the Italian Renaissance from 14th to 16th centuries; provincial capital of Tuscany
Florence attracts millions of tourists each year.
magistratea judge or civil authority who conducts a court — especially one dealing with minor offenses or preliminary hearings for major offenses
The local magistrate insisted on a cash payment for the speeding ticket.
dwellmake one’s home in; or to live in; or to stay (in a place)
other common meaning(s) — as in: It dwells in the forest.
The creature dwells in the forest.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering Mecca.
Martin Luther King Jr.inspiring U.S. civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of blacks; assassinated (1929-1968)
In 1986, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a national holiday in the United States.
Queen Victoriaqueen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901 when the monarchy had primarily symbolic power; the last Hanoverian ruler of England (1819-1901)
The Victorian era is in reference to the 63 years that Queen Victoria ruled.
AfrikanerSouth Africans whose first language is Afrikaans — typically descendants of 17th century Dutch settlers; previously called Boers
They have Afrikaner support.
Henry ClayU.S. politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)
Henry Clay’s tombstone reads: "I know no North - no South - no East - no West."
Ph.Da research doctorate usually based on at least 3 years graduate study and a dissertation; the highest degree awarded in universities in many fields of study
She is a research scientist who earned her Ph.D in physics.
liegea feudal lord entitled to allegiance and service
a person who owes allegiance and service to a feudal lord
He was her liege lord.
Hong Kongone of the world’s leading commercial centers on the coast of southern China; formerly an English colony; leased by China to Britain in 1842 and returned in 1997
Governance of Hong Kong was transferred from Britain to China in 1997.
Knights Templaran order of medieval knights that existed for two centuries after the First Crusade who helped to protect Jerusalem and European pilgrims to Jerusalem
The Knights Templar were the first significant international bankers.
hippiemember of the counterculture that first became prevalent in the early 1960’s in San Francisco — associated with long hair, illegal drugs, casual sex, and opposition to violence.
Many of the hippies who initiated the Summer of Love had moved on by the 1970s.
Tibetan autonomous region of China; located in the Himalayas
or (when the Government of Tibet in Exile and the Tibetan refugee community abroad refer to Tibet): a much larger area consisting of three traditional provinces
The Dalai Lama is Tibet’s leader-in-exile.
Christopher ColumbusItalian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
The term "pre-Columbian" is in reference to Christopher Columbus.
Euclid’s Elements served as main text for teaching geometry for over 2,000 years.
Frederick DouglassU.S. abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
The autobiography written by Frederick Douglass is still popular today.
Richard IIIKing of England from 1483 to 1485; seized the throne from his nephew Edward V who was confined to the Tower of London and murdered; his reign ended when he was defeated by Henry Tudor (later Henry VII) at the battle of Bosworth Field (1452-1485)
Shakespeare’s play, Richard III, is an unflattering depiction of his reign.
Members of the Nation of Islam were convicted for assassinating Malcolm X.
Thomas MoreEnglish statesman who accepted execution rather than take an oath against his beliefs; executed by Henry VIII; coined the word "utopia" (1478-1535)
The film, A Man for all Seasons is based on the life of Thomas More.
Benedict Arnoldgeneral who betrayed the U.S. in the Revolutionary War and whose name is, to this day, synonymous with the word traitor (1741-1801)
To this day "Benedict Arnold" can be used as an American synonym for "traitor."
Bill GatesU.S. software entrepreneur who founded Microsoft, became the world’s richest person while still in his 30s, and funded the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (b. 1955)
Today, Bill Gates devotes most of his time to philanthropy.
Grand Canalthe most important canal in Venice, Italy — a famous route for tourists on gondolas
other common meaning(s) — of Venice
We took a water bus on the Grand Canal in Venice.
Grand Canallongest canal in the world (about 1000 miles) in eastern China
other common meaning(s) — of China
We saw only a little of it, but we took a tour boat on the Grand Canal from Beijing.
accommodateprovide (or have the ability to provide) something desired or needed
other common meaning(s) — as in: Each room can accommodate four
The lab can accommodate up to 30 students at one time.
She is opposed, but will ultimately acquiesce to the will of the majority.
We stayed in adjacent hotel rooms.
advocateto recommend or publicly support someone or something
other common meaning(s) — as in: to advocate
She advocates stricter gun control.
She seemed an ideal candidate—attractive, amiable, intelligent and energetic.
The printed version is an expensive anachronism from an earlier time.
An anarchist group claimed responsibility for the explosion.
I was afraid she would be angry, but she responded without a hint of animosity.
annexto take territory — such as a city making land outside of it a part of the city
other common meaning(s) — as in: annexed the community
The county annexed the rural community where we live.
The effects of the drought are apparent to anyone who sees the dry fields.
The President is thought to have made the statement to appease the party faithful.
She is apprehensive about her new job.
When I first started reading Shakespeare, it seemed archaic.
assertto say that something is true — especially something disputed
other common meaning(s) — as in: asserted her opinion that...
The defense also asserts that the defendant has no previous record.
audaciousbold and daring (inclined to take risks) — especially in violating social convention in a manner that could offend others
It was an audacious act of piracy.
augustmajestic or greatly admired — especially due to high rank or age
more common meaning(s) — as in: august stature
I am humbled to be chosen as a steward of this august institution.
austerea notable absence of luxury, comfort, or decoration
of a person: stern in manner; or practicing great self-denial
He took a vow of silence and leads an austere life at the monastery.
avert a strike
her latest album is a collection of love ballads.
bastiondefense or defensive fortification — such as people who defend a principle or fortifications that defend people from attack (especially the projecting part of a castle wall or rampart)
These rules are a bastion against corruption.
She demonstrated a steady hand while negotiating with a typically bellicose North Korea.
She spoke to her teacher in a belligerent tone and was sent to the office.
besiegeto surround with armed forces, and cut-off supplies or attack
to make an overwhelming number of requests, complaints, or comments — typically in an annoying manner and sometimes while surrounding
The Turks besieged Vienna
bourgeoistypical of the middle class or their values and habits — typically used to show disapproval
in Marxist theory: the property-owning class
Our lifestyle upsets their bourgeois sensibilities.
Don’t worry about my feelings. I’d like your candid opinion.
capitalisman economic system based on private ownership of property and businesses, and on voluntary exchange in a competitive environment — with the belief that adults can generally make better decisions for themselves than the government can; and that the voluntary exchange of labor, money, and property harnesses and directs inborn self-interest so it benefits decision makers and society
Capitalism has helped to move millions of people out of poverty.
The Romans induced many enemy armies to capitulate by offering good terms of surrender.
capriciousimpulsive or unpredictable or tending to make sudden changes— especially impulsive behavior
Nothing seems more capricious than a tornado.
citeto mention a source of information — usually as proof or an example that supports an idea
other common meaning(s) — as in: references cited in the endnotes
Sources are cited in the endnotes.
clemencymercy — as in: the judge showed clemency
He petitioned the Governor for clemency.
He had become complacent after years of success.
Many suspect the complicity of top officials.
Their statements are conciliatory, but their actions are uncompromising.
condescendinga manner that treats others as inferiors
doing something (such as joining others) one considers beneath her position in society
She gave me that condescending look as though I wasn’t worthy to ask her a question.
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