|100 Words Encountered in|
|Logic & Reasoning|
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accordin keeping with; or in agreement/harmony/unity with
other common meaning(s) — as in: according to, or in accord with
She will get a fair trial in accordance with the law.
She resolved to never drink again.
hypothesisa seemingly reasonable, but unproven, idea based upon known facts — often an idea to be tested
other common meaning(s) — as in: a study to test her hypothesis
The study will test the hypothesis that a good marriage is more important than a higher income when measuring happiness.
hypothesissomething that may not be true, but that is temporarily treated as true to advance a discussion or to further investigation
other common meaning(s) — as in: Let’s assume hypothetically that
For the purpose of discussion, let’s accept that the hypothesis that she is guilty is true. What would we have expected her to do after the incident?
She wouldn’t make a direct statement, but she implied that she supported our position.
Which of the following facts can you infer from the first paragraph?
abstractof a concept or idea not associated with any specific instance
or more rarely:
describing someone as distracted — thinking about something outside of the immediate conversation or circumstances
other common meaning(s) — as in: abstract thought
We all agree that we want what’s "best for the country", but that is an abstract concept and we cannot agree on which specific laws should be passed.
subtlenot obvious, but understandable by someone with adequate sensitivity and relevant knowledge (perhaps depending upon fine distinctions)
capable of understanding things that require sensitivity and relevant knowledge (perhaps understanding fine distinctions)
other common meaning(s) — as in: a subtle difference or thinker
She used subtle reasoning to expose the absurdity of his argument.
A zillion is a large indeterminate number.
correspondingconsistent, similar, or accompanying — as in: corresponding time period
Eskimos have many words that correspond to the English word snow. For example, there are different words for "snow on the ground", "fresh snow on the ground", "soft snow on the ground", "a crust of snow on the ground" and so forth.
We have sufficient supplies.
assertto say that something is true — especially something disputed
other common meaning(s) — as in: asserted her opinion that...
The defense also asserts that the defendant has no previous record.
She reached a false conclusion that was based on fallacious reasoning.
She offered a plausible excuse.
At $50 a share, it is equivalent to about a billion dollars.
Her guess was proven right by subsequent developments.
The state has approximately as many Republicans as Democrats.
She has a gift for breaking a complex task into a simple series of sequential steps.
coherentsensible and clear; or describing parts as fitting together in a consistent or pleasing manner
She is more coherent now than she was just after the accident an hour ago.
inconsistentnot the same in different parts or at different times
not in agreement [with something else]
Her play is inconsistent. Sometimes she’s unbeatable and other times she beats herself.
We’re considering five primary criteria as we compare job applicants.
contraryin opposition to what was just said
the opposite or alternative
disagreeable in personality
We will not allow members to act contrary to our code of ethics.
Is her theory supported by empirical data?
There are infinite possibilities.
Stone tools preceded bronze tools.
presumptionsomething thought of as true without proof
other common meaning(s) — as in: presumption of innocence
I presumed she was an expert since she spoke so confidently.
insighta clear understanding of some aspect of a complex situation; or a tendency to have such understandings
The book is full of insight on human nature.
reconcileto bring into agreement
(see word notes for more detailed definitions based on context)
other common meaning(s) — as in: reconciled their differences
She reconciled her checking account statement.
To make things better, to enjoy each other’s company, and to empathize are essence of humanity.
essentialabsolutely necessary; or of the greatest importance
the defining or most important aspect of something
The essential feature of the pen is that it writes so consistently.
It is easier to learn things that seem relevant to your life.
It is an ethical dilemma.
constraintsomething that limits something’s motion or someone’s actions; or the state of being so limited
Both sides have demonstrated a lack of constraint in the discussions.
explicitprecise and clear so there is no confusion or doubt about what was/is said
other common meaning(s) — as in: explicit instructions
She gave us explicit instructions.
explicitexpressing or displaying sexual activity or nudity in a manner that leaves little to the imagination
other common meaning(s) — as in: explicit photos and pornography
The computer has a filter that blocks explicit photos and pornography.
implicitimplied though not directly expressed
other common meaning(s) — as in: not explicitly but implicitly
"Did she explicitly promise?"
"Well, I guess not explicitly, but nobody who was there could have missed the implicit promise."
implicitexists as an inseparable part or characteristic
other common meaning(s) — as in: implicit problem with the design
This risk is implicit in your plan. We can work to minimize the danger, but it cannot be eliminated.
implicitcomplete (without any doubts)
other common meaning(s) — as in: I trust her implicitly.
Her team has implicit confidence in her decisions.
utilitariandesigned for usefulness rather than beauty or style — as in: utilitarian furniture
She likes plain utilitarian kitchenware.
objectivefact-based without the influence of personal feelings or preferences — as in: an objective viewpoint
By any objective analysis, you would have to agree that...
The were perfect partners—one highly intuitive and the other highly analytical.
profoundof greatest intensity or emotional depth
other common meaning(s) — as in: profound sadness
Her apology was heartfelt—expressing profound sorrow and regret.
I don’t think she comprehends how dangerous this has become.
Her insurance includes comprehensive coverage.
rhetoricthe use of words to make a point
or more rarely:
study of the technique and rules for using language effectively (especially to persuade)
She uses convincing rhetoric, but makes bad decisions.
She acknowledged that she might have forgotten.
Juries can construe evidence to mean something it does not.
We’re in agreement on the main issues. We just have some trivial details to work out.
She trusts only what she can measure or can deduce from measurement.
contendto claim that something is true
other common meaning(s) — as in: She contended that...
Her lawyer contends that the contract isn’t valid.
premisesomething assumed to be true that can be used to build a logical argument
other common meaning(s) — as in: the premise of the argument
Her logic is fine except that it assumes a false premise.
Where facts failed her, she used sophistry.
deriveto get something from something else
(If the context doesn’t otherwise indicate where something came from, it is generally from reasoning—especially deductive reasoning.)
She likes to win, but she doesn’t derive pleasure from watching others lose.
derivativesomething developed from something else such as:
a highly derivative prose style
diffuseto spread; or to soften or calm
to be spread out (not concentrated) — sometimes implying a lack or organization or the use of too many words
When the United States focused on terrorism, the movement went further underground and became more diffuse.
tautologyuseless repetition in different words (such as "unmarried bachelor")
other common meaning(s) — a linguistic tautology
It is an intentional tautology as when Gertrude Stein said "A rose is a rose is a rose."
tautologya statement that is necessarily true (such as "She will win the election or she won’t.")
other common meaning(s) — a logical tautology
She didn’t proved anything. It’s a tautology to propose as a premise that "All men are pigs," and that "Bob is therefore a pig because he’s a man." The "proof" is in the premise—which is to say, there is no proof.
Wind and sea may displace the ship’s center of gravity along three orthogonal axes.
attributea characteristic (of something or someone)
other common meaning(s) — as in: It is an attribute of...
She described his physical attributes.
commutative propertymath: the order in which two numbers are added or multiplied does not change their sum or product (2+3=3+2) and (4×7=7×4)
other common meaning(s) — as in: commutative property of addition
As in math, the commutative property works for this recipe. The order in which you add the ingredients doesn’t matter.
another one-sided, political diatribe not worth listening to
abstainchoose not to do something
other common meaning(s) — as in: abstained from alcohol
I abstain from alcohol
abstracta summary; or to summarize — especially academic writing
other common meaning(s) — as in: read the abstract
The abstract is free, but there is a fee to see the entire article.
The professor’s lectures were so abstruse that students tended to avoid them.
accedeto agree or express agreement
other common meaning(s) — as in: accede to her suggestion
She will not accede to his request.
Her answer was ambiguous.
Her theory is the antithesis of mine.
She often quotes St. Augustine’s aphorism, "Love the sinner and hate the sin."
appropriatesuitable (fitting) for a particular situation
other common meaning(s) — as in: it is appropriate
These clothes aren’t appropriate for work.
aproposof an appropriate or pertinent nature
other common meaning(s) — as in: unusual attire, but apropos
The story was apropos.
arbitrarybased on chance or impulse (rather than upon reasoning, consistent rules, or a proper sense of fairness)
It was an arbitrary decision.
assimilatetake in and/or transform or fit in:
such as: a person with differences fitting into a prevailing culture
or such as: information transformed within the mind into understanding
or such as: nutrients transformed within the body for its use
This country assimilates immigrants very quickly.
attributeto credit (a source for something) — such as:
other common meaning(s) — as in: I attribute it to...
She attributed this quotation to Shakespeare.
Few men could remain detached while looking into her beguiling eyes.
Please don’t belabor the obvious.
belieto give a false impression; or be in contradiction with
other common meaning(s) — as in: his smile belied his treachery
His gruff demeanor belies a soft heart.
The gradualness of the change does not belittle its importance.
The poor, benighted innocent had never seen such a man.
Dickens, Charles -- David Copperfield
She spoke with blithe ignorance of the true situation.
breadththe distance between two sides; or the range of variety — especially a broad range of knowledge
The introductory courses are meant to add to breadth rather than depth of understanding.
I’m not sure they appreciated her speech, but I know they liked its brevity.
broachbring up a topic for discussion - especially an awkward topic — as in: broached the subject
I am looking for a way to tactfully broach the topic of her bad breath.
She is a bumptious young editor who will change her ways or lose her job.
cachea storage space — often hidden to hold valuables, provisions or weapons; or the storing of things
other common meaning(s) — as in: cache of arms
We found a cache of weapons buried in the woods.
She praises and castigates without hesitation.
Her certitude has given way to doubt.
She describes his dream as a political chimera.
The explanation was circuitous and puzzling.
She isn’t known for circumlocution or subtlety.
I will not let their expectations circumscribe how I live my life.
She’s too circumspect to make that kind of mistake.
It is difficult to decide because both sides offer cogent arguments.
She writes beautiful songs with colloquial lyrics that touch the heart.
compellingvery interesting; or convincing — possibly leading to action
or more rarely: a force for action
The evidence is compelling.
most teenagers are surprisingly conformist within a subgroup
She has a congenial relationship with her colleagues.
conjecturea conclusion or opinion based on inconclusive evidence; or the act of forming of such a conclusion or opinion
She dismissed it as mere conjecture.
They are conniving to get government contracts in return for campaign contributions.
consonantin keeping with (or in harmony with)
other common meaning(s) — as in: in consonance with
Her thinking is not consonant with the deeply held beliefs of those who elected her.
consonanta letter of the alphabet (or a speech sound) that is not a vowel
other common meaning(s) — as in: consonant or vowel?
She stresses the last consonants or her words.
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